Order of Philip the Magnanimous, Type II, II Class Knight's Cross (with crown)
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The Order was instituted by Grand Duke Ludwig II in commemoration of his ancestor, Langraf Philip I the Magnanimous, and was conferred in recognition of civil and military merit.
The Order was established in four classes, Grand Cross, I Class Commander, II Class Commander and Knight. Throughout its existence, the Order has undergone numerous changes.
In 1849, the Silver Cross was added as the Order’s fifth grade. In addition, golden crossed swords were added to the Order as a possible addition for the four highest grades. Silver crossed swords were a possible addition to the Silver Cross.
In 1859, the Knight Cross was divided into I and II Class. Silver crossed swords became a possible addition for both grades of the Knight Cross.
In 1876, the Order was renamed Großherzoglich Hessicher Philipps-Orden
In 1881, a surmounting crown was added to the Order.
In 1893, it was determined that the conferral of crossed swords would be limited to extraordinary achievements in war.
In 1900, the Honour Cross was introduced as a grade, which fell between the II Class Commander Cross and I Class Knight Cross.
In 1911, golden rays were added between the cross arms of I Class Commander Breast Star.
The Type II Order grades feature the bust of Philip the Magnanimous on the obverse.
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