The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia. The island is made up of the eastern end of Timor island and the enclave of Oecusse on the northern coast of Indonesia’s western side of the island. The population is around one million in East Timor. Dili is the capital and largest city. The official language is Tetum and Portuguese. The head of state of East Timor is the President of the Republic, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.
In the 14th century, Timor was included in China and India's trade networks. After that, Timor was under European colonialism and was ruled by the Portuguese from the 1600s until 1975. During the Second World War, first the Allies and later the Japanese occupied Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor.
After the Portuguese, Indonesia invaded and conquered East Timor. The country struggled for independence and finally gained it in 2002. During the struggle over 100,000 people were killed.
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