The Republic of San Marino, is a microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side. Its size is just over 24 square miles, with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino. The official language is Italian. San Marino is governed by the Constitution of San Marino, a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century.
The country takes its name from Marinus, a stonemason in modern-day Croatia. In A.D. 257, Marinus, according to legend, participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in A.D. 301. San Marino lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.
One award of San Marino is the Order of San Marino which was established August 13, 1859. It is an Order of Merit and is presented for outstanding civil or military services to the Republic, or for humanitarian, artistic, political or scientific accomplishment.
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