Order of the African Star, Collar
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The Order of the African Star was established by King Leopold II by an unpublished decree on December 30, 1888. It was originally created as an order of the Congo Free State, but it later was integrated into the national hierarchy of decorations in Belgium after the Congo Free State ceased to exist as a private domain of King Leopold II in 1908. The Order was discontinued on June 30, 1960, following the declaration of Congolese independence in the same year. The King was Grand Master.
The Order was generally conferred upon high-ranking officials, executives, bishops, and police officers in recognition of services rendered to the Congo, or to Africa more broadly. It was rarely conferred prior to 1908 when it was the highest ranking order in the Congo Free State, and it was conferred even less often as a Belgian order. During the First World War, it was conferred upon military personnel who fought against German colonial troops.
A number of different clasps were awarded with the Order: a palm branch with the cypher of Albert I was awarded to military personnel for war merit in the First World War, a silver palm branch was awarded on medals conferred upon native troops for service in the First World War, a gold palm branch was awarded on medals conferred posthumously upon Non-Commissioned Officers who died in the First World War, a palm branch with the cypher of Leopold III was awarded to military personnel for war merit in the Second World War or the Korean War, a palm branch (without any royal monogram) was awarded to military personnel for war merit in the Second World War or the Korean War, and a gold star was awarded to civilians for mention in official dispatches.
There are two versions of the badge appendant which differ in obverse inscription. The inscription of both versions translates to “Labour and Progress,” but appears on the first version in French and on the second version in French and Dutch. Both versions feature the royal cypher of Leopold II on the reverse.
The Collar was only conferred with the Grand Cross under exceptional circumstances. It is composed of 10 stars, 10 royal crowns, 10 "LS" monograms, and a badge appendant.
Obv: TRAVAIL ET PROGRES Rev: LSL
Wolfers, Brussels; De Vigne Hart, Brussels; P. De Greef, Brussels; Heremans, Schaerbeek; Heremans, Brussels; Fonson, Brussels; Fibru-Fisch, Brussels; Fibru Europe, Brussels; Mauquoy, Antwerp; Arthus-Bertrand, Paris; Lemaitre, Paris; Chobillon, Paris; C. F. Rothe & Neffe, Vienna
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