Order of the Red Eagle, Type II, Cross

CATEGORY: Version

SKU: 01.PRU.0104.101.01.000

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Estimated market value:

N/A

Attributes

  • Country
    Germany
  • Composition
    Gold/Enamelled
  • Inscription
    Obv: FWR
  • Size
    47x86mm
  • Version Remarks
    This version has a small crown.

Physical Description and Item Details


A white enamelled maltese cross with golden rays in the quadrant with red enamelled Brandenburg eagles on the rays. the medallion featureds the monogram FWR in purple/red enamel painting. The reverse mirrors the obverse but does not have eagles on the rays. The reverse medallion features a monogram GW (Georg Wilhelm). The cross is surmounted by a crown.

History


This Order was originally founded by Margrave Georg Wilhelm of Brandenburg-Bayreuth as the Ordre de la Sincerité. The Order quickly fell into disuse but was revived in Brandenburg-Bayreuth in 1712. It was revived again in 1734 in Brandenburg-Ansbach and renamed the "Order of the Brandenburg Red Eagle.”

In 1777 the Order name was changed to the "Order of the Red Eagle.”

From 1777-1792 the Order only had one grade with a maximum of 50 members. The list provided to the King in 1792 claimed four princes, 12 knights in the chapter, as well as 32 knights and noble nights, totalling 40 members.

The Kingdom of Prussia absorbed the principalities of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1791, and in 1792, King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia redesigned the Order as a Prussian Royal Order.

The Order of the Red Eagle was the second most prestigious Order in the Kingdom of Prussia, after the High Order of the Black Eagle.The Order of the Red Eagle was a prerequisite to the Order of the Black Eagle. In 1792, it was determined that Knights of the Order of the Black Eagle would wear the Red Eagle neck decoration.

The shape of the cross on the star was changed in 1792, along with the ribbon - two white edges were added to the two orange stripes. At this time, all living knights were to exchange their medals for the new style.

In 1810, King Freidrich Wilhelm III made changes to all Prussian orders. The Order of the Red Eagle was expanded into three classes, I Class Cross with I Class Breast Star, II Class Cross, and III Class Cross. At this time, the II Class and III Class were the same size (in 1817, the III Class was made smaller). A gold and silver medal were also associated. From 1810 onward, the Order grades could be awarded with diamonds.

In 1811, surmounting oak leaves could be added to the I Class Cross and II Class Cross. The oak leaves were an indicator that the recipient had already been awarded a lower Order grade. For instance, recipients of the II Class Cross who had already received a III Class Cross were conferred the II Class Cross with oak leaves. The same rule applied to I Class Cross recipients who had already received the II Class Cross or III Class Cross.

In 1830, the II Class Breast Star and the IV Class Cross were added to the Order. In 1832, the bow to the III Class was created to signify the recipient had previously been awarded the IV Class.

In 1833, the General Service Cross was promoted into the Order as the IV Class.

In 1842, the Medal of Merit was added to the Order.

In 1848, swords were created for the order, and awarded for merit during war. If a recipient was promoted to a higher grade, but had previously received swords to their lower grade, the swords would be added to the ring of the higher grade. The swords could also be added to the star above the center medallion.

In 1850, crowns and scepters were awarded to a few recipients who aided in the suppression of the 1848/1849 revolutions. Non Christian awards were introduced in 1851, as well as a special jubilee number to be worn on either the oak left or the bow, as a plaque on the decoration itself, for 50 years of service.

The Order statutes were amended again in 1861, resulting in the addition of the Grand Cross with Grand Cross Breast Star.

Throughout the latter half of the 19th century, there were many examples of the Order of the Red Eagle being worn on ribbons of different Orders when a recipient had received multiple awards.

The motto of the Order “Sincere et constanter” translates to “Sincere and Constant”.

Type II decorations were awarded between 1792-1810 and consist of one class. They are also known as Model I.

The medallion of the cross features the monogram FWR for Freidrich Wilhelm Rex. It was awarded 21 times by assuming the knights of the Brandenburg Red Eagle. Of the first 15 awards made in 1792, 11 went to military personnel. By 1810, there were 220 awards, and possibly 81 knights, as the recipients of the Black Eagle Order were awarded the Red Eagle Order as well.

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