Military Order of St. Henry, Type II, Grand Cross
Image courtesy of „Handbuch der Ritter- und Verdienstorden aller Kulturstaaten der Welt", Maximillian Gritzner
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This Order was first instituted by King Augustus II of Poland, Elector of Saxony, on his 40th birthday. The original title of the Order was the "Knightly Military Order of St. Henry".
The Order was awarded to the Crown Prince and several Generals in recognition of military and wartime merit. This Order was the oldest German war medal, and until 1918, was the highest Saxon honour for bravery.
Type I decorations were awarded from 1736-1768. According to the statutes of 1736, the order comprised of 6 commanders and 30 knights. The decoration is slightly larger for the commander than the knights, but is of the same design. The obverse arms present the crowned monogram AR III for Augustus Rex III. A total of 31 Type I decorations were awarded, including 22 in 1769, four in 1737, three in 1738 and two in 1745.
Type II decorations were introduced when Augustus III died, and the end of the Saxon/Polish Union occurred in 1768. His successor died after 74 days of reign, and the next legitimate successor, Elector Friedrich August III, was only 13 and therefore not governable. His uncle, Prince Xavier became administrator and on September 4, 1768 the Order was renewed and redesigned. The Prince expanded the Order to include into three main grades, Grand Cross with Grand Cross Breast Star, Commander Cross, and Knight Cross, and one small cross for Officials of the Order. The Order continued to be awarded in recognition of military merit.
The Polish eagles were removed and were replaced by green enamelled diamond shaped wreaths between the arms. The medallion was changed from a profile to a standing emperor with the inscription XAVERIUS P P D E AD S INSTIT 1768, translating to Xavier, Prince of Poland, Duke and Administrator of Saxony has (the order) erected in 1768. Minor changes to the order also occurred in 1806, following the Poznan Peace. The crossed swords on the reverse were replaced with the new royal national coat of arms.
Type III awards consist of the period 1829-1918. On December 23, 1829 the Order was renewed by King Anton, he changed the Order title to the "Order to the Military Order of St. Henry" and added the grades of Grand Commander and Grand Commander Breast Star. He also connected the gold and silver military merit medal to the V class.
Over the course of 182 years, this order was awarded a total of 3843 times. The military medals in gold were awarded 403 times (including 47 copper and gold-plated) as well as 8995 silver military merit medals, the majority of which were awarded during the First World War.
The motto of the Order is PIETATE ET BELLICA VIRTUTE meaning “For Piety and Martial Bravery” until 1768 when it was altered to VIRTVTI IN BELLO meaning “For Bravery in War”. Makers of this order include Karl Wilhelm Hoeckner, Friedrich Ulbricht, and Rothe.
This order became obsolete in 1918 after Germany's defeat in the First World War.
The Grand Cross was awarded three times on September 2, 1768, to Elector Friedrich August III. of Saxony, Johann Georg, Field Marshal General and Leopold Nicolause, Order Chancellor.
Obv: VIRTVTI IN BELLO Rev: XAVERIVS P.P.D.E.AD.S.INSTIT: 1768
Type II decorations present a green enamelled diamond shape wreath between the arms, with a standing emperor in the medallion. The inscri...
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