Verdun Cross (stamped "GES.GESCH" 1932)
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The Cross was instituted by the Honorary Union of the Saxon World War Participants, a Veterans' Association in Saxony.
It was founded to commemorate and reward German soldiers who participated in the Battle of Verdun.
The cross was manufactured in Düsseldorf and Hamburg.
The Düsseldorf crosses were produced in 1932 by Eugen Billig, and they are in the shape of an equilateral Teutonic Cross.
The Hamburg crosses were produced in 1933-1934 by Fleck & Sohn, and they are the shape of an eight-pointed Maltese Cross.
Since it was an unofficial award conferred during the Weimar Republic, veterans were required to purchase the cross themselves.
Unofficial crossed swords may be featured on the ribbon to emphasize the "combat merit" of the recipient.
There were approximately 3,000 crosses awarded in total.
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