The Republic of the Sudan is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bounded by Egypt, the Red Sea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Chad and Libya. The Sudan is divided into 18 states. The government is a dominant-party federal semi-presidential republic. The estimated population of the Sudan is 39,5 million. The capital and largest city is Khartoum. The official languages in the Sudan are Arabic and English.
In the 19 century Sudan was control by Egypt and the UK. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. On January 1, 1956 gained Sudan the independence from Egypt and the UK . Since then, it has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. The Republic of Sudan emerged in July 2011 after the country was split in two. South Sudan split off to become its own country separate from the Republic of Sudan.
Since Sudan's proclamation of independence on 1 January 1956, the military has played a crucial role in the country's politics. A total of 30.9 percent of government spending was spent on the military, which is one of the highest proportions in the world.
The Cordon of Honour was the highest title and was conferred upon Sudanese citizens and foreign heads of state in recognition of exceptional services to the state.
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