Order of the Phoenix, Type II, Civil Division, Grand Commander
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The Order of the Phoenix was established by the Republican Greek government on May 13, 1926, as a replacement for the Royal Order of George I. It features the phoenix as a symbol of the newly reborn Republic.
From 1926-1927 the Order was conferred upon Greek citizens and foreigners, but from 1927-1935, the Order was only conferred upon foreigners. Since 1935, it has been conferred upon Greek citizens for distinguished service in public administration, science, the arts and letters, commerce, industry, and shipping. It may also be conferred upon prominent foreigners for contributions to the international status of the Greek nation.
The Order is classified into three types based on design changes representative of changes in the political landscape.
Type II decorations were awarded from 1935-1975. They feature a surmounting crown and a royal cypher on the reverse. From 1935-1949, the crosses featured the cypher of King George II, and from 1949-1974, they featured the cypher of King Paul I. In 1935, the crosses featured the inscription “E. T. T. A.” on the obverse, but no subsequent Type II crosses have an obverse inscription. Type II crosses may also feature a star on the obverse above the head of the phoenix. The Military Division was added in 1941 and features decorations with crossed swords.
In addition to the possible differences in royal cypher, stars, and divisions, the Type II Grand Commander may also differ in manufacturer. It is identical to the Type II Commander, however, only the Grand Commander was worn with a Breast Star.
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