Cross of Valour (1922-1923)
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The Cross of Valour was established by the Council of National Defence in 1920. It was renewed again by the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in 1940 and was also awarded by the Polish People’s Republic until the collapse of the communist regime in 1989. It was officially re-established by the Republic of Poland in 1992.
It is awarded to Polish military personnel in recognition of acts of bravery performed in combat. It may be awarded up to four times to the same recipient, in which case a bar clasp is worn on the ribbon to denote each additional award. It may also be awarded to Polish civilians who have fought alongside Polish forces, but only under exceptional circumstances.
In the Second Polish Republic, the Cross of Valour was awarded for acts of bravery performed in the First World War as well as in the January, Silesian, and Greater Polish Uprisings. The first version produced by Rozycki does not feature a date on the obverse, while all subsequent versions of the period feature "1920" on the obverse.
The Government of the Republic of Poland in exile awarded the Cross during and after the Second World War. Many different manufacturers produced crosses during this period including manufacturers from Italy, France, Great Britain, and Palestine. These crosses were not issued with serial numbers.
All versions of the Bronze Cross feature an obverse inscription that translates to “On the Field of Glory,” and a reverse inscription that translates to “Brave.”
There may be additional versions of Bronze Cross that differ in size, composition, design, inscription, suspension, or manufacturer.
The later models are listed in the Medals & Decorations of the Polish People’s Republic (1944-1989) and the Third Polish Republic (1989-).
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