The Portuguese Republic is located in the Iberian Peninsula, southwest Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain; Portugal has these same defined borders since 1139, making Portugal the oldest nation-state in Europe. The capital and largest city is Lisbon, the second oldest European capital after Athens -many historians believing that it was settled by the Phoenicians around 1200 B.C. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who invaded the peninsula in 711 AD. The Portuguese language is spoken by about 236 million people worldwide (including 210 million natives) and is the official language in 9 countries.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal developed a prominent history of maritime exploration becoming the first European global empire and one of the world's major economic, political and military power. At the beginning of the 19th century a Napoleonic army invaded Portugal during the Peninsular War. The whole Portuguese court fled to Brazil in 1808 establishing the Portuguese Empire with Rio de Janeiro as its capital city. The court stood in Brazil until 1822, in spite of the Peninsular War finished in 1814. When the Portuguese Court returned to Portugal had to fight against constitutional monarchy intentions during a period known as Liberal Wars.
The beginning of the 20th century was marked by nationalist republican movements. In 1908, the king and crown prince were assassinated, and in 1910, after an uprising by military officers, Portugal was declared a republic. In 1916, under British pressure, Portugal entered to the First World War as part of the Allied Powers. In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two additional major conflicts: World War II and the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). After the end of the Portuguese Empire in 1975, the Portuguese Armed Forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanon, Mali and Central African Republic.
The Order of the Tower and Sword is the highest order in Portugal.
Portuguese Phaleristics is complex and hard to classify. It is also considerably rich despite being little known. As an effort to contain the most varied information in Medal Book, Portugal is organized by Orders, Medals & Decoration, and Badges & Insignias.
Estrela, Paulo Jorge. Ordens e condecorações portuguesas, 1793-1824. 2008.
Emering, Ed. “20th-21st Century Portuguese Overseas Medals.” The Medals Hound. http://www.themedalhound.com/portuguese/.
Estrela, Paulo Jorge. “Medalha da CVP - prémio por serviços distintos na guerra e na paz.” LusÍada 2, no.2 (2005): 159-182. http://www.acd-faleristica.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Med-Serv-Distintos-CVP.pdf.
“Legislação Régia.” Assembleia da República. http://legislacaoregia.parlamento.pt/Pesquisa/Default.aspx?ts=1.
“Ordens HonorÍficas Portuguesas.” Presidência da República Portuguesa. Modified in 2011. http://www.ordens.presidencia.pt/?idc=175.
Phaleristics Academy of Portugal. Modified in 2016. http://www.faleristica.org/.
“Portuguese Victory Medals.” Gentleman’s Military Interest Club. Published on August 28, 2009. http://gmic.co.uk/topic/47016-portuguese-victory-medals/?page=3.
Quinta-Nova, Jorge. “Ordens, Condecorações e Medalhas Portuguesas.” Clio & Marte: História e Coleccionismo. Published in July, 2016. http://cliomarte.blogspot.ca/search/label/Medalha#uds-search-results.
Trigueiros, António M. and Gustav A. Tammann. The Three Portuguese Military Orders of Knighthood, 1789-1910 (The Order of Christ, the Order of Avis, and the Order of Sant’Iago): A Guide for Collectors. Glassboro: Orders and Medals Society of America, 1997. http://www.conteudos.easysite.com.pt/files/48/ficheiros/emblematica/The_Three_Portuguese_Orders_of_Knightwood_OSMA__Medal_Notes_01_OCR.pdf.
Gandra, Manuel J. Ordens Luso-Brasileiras e suas Insignias. Instituto Mukharajj Brasilan & Centro Ernesto Soares de Iconografia e Simbólica-Cesdies, Mafra - Rio de Janeiro, 2017.