Commemorative Campaign Service Medal, Type I, Gold Medal (1916-1919)
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The Commemorative Campaign Service Medal (Medalha Comemorativa das Campanhas) was established during the First World War together with the Portuguese War Cross in 1916. It was founded to reward all military personnel who was taking part in military campaigns on Portuguese soil or overseas. It replaced the Queen Amelia Medal that had been previously awarded for participation in overseas Portuguese military operations.
Since its inception, the Campaign Service Medal has recognized wartime service consisting of three classes based on the rank of the recipient; the Gold Medal had been awarded to Generals and Senior Officers, the Silver Medal for other Officer, and Copper Medal for other ranks. All of these are issued with a clasp for the military campaign that the recipient has served; if the Medal is awarded more than once the clasps are located in the ribbon in chronological order from the top to the bottom. The Medal has been amended in several occasions regarding to its design and statutes, but the classes and ribbon have remained the same.
In 1919, the Medal's name was changed to Commemorative Medal of the Armed Forces Campaign and its design was changed by first time. In 1921, the design was modified again, as well as it was in 1949. Since 1916 to 1919, the Medal featured a right-facing effigy of the Republic, and a rounded reverse inscription lettering; this is known as 1916 Model. From 1919 to 1921, the 1919 Model Medal featured a left-facing effigy of the Republic, and a straight reverse inscription lettering. Since 1921 to 1949, the Medal featured a front-facing effigy of the Republic, and a winged angel on the reverse. All these versions feature an obverse inscription that translates to “Portuguese Republic,” and a reverse inscription that translates to “Campaigns of the Portuguese Army.” Between 1949 and 2002, the Medal featured the national emblem on the obverse, and three soldiers holding the Portuguese flag on the reverse; it had a slightly change of features in 1971 when the surmounted crown was added. The inscriptions was changed in 2002, with the end of the overseas (colonial) war, when all Portuguese colonies names were suppressed from the reverse inscription.
The 2002 model was attributed in the Afghanistan, Kosovo and Somalia / Africa campaigns and today is attributed to war veterans of the overseas (colonial) war.
A number of gilt clasps could be awarded with the Medal to denote service in specific campaigns. In addition to these campaign clasps, wound clasps could be awarded, which were inscribed with the name and date of a specific battle in which the wounds were incurred. The clasps include:
- "SUL DA ANGOLA 1914 A 1915"
- "MOCAMBIQUE 1914 A 1918"
- "NO MAR 1916-1917-1918"
- "FRANCA 1917-1918"
- "DEFENSA MARITIMA 1914-1918"
- "CUANZA-SUL 1917-1918"
- "C.E.L. DEFENSA MARITIMA 1914-1918"
- "FUNCHAL DEFENSA MARITIMA 1916-1918"
- "PONTA DELGADA DEFENSE MARITIMA 1916-1918"
- "CABO VERDE 1917-1918"
- "DEMBOS 1918-1919"
- "LUNDA 1922-1923"
- "LUNDA 1920"
- "CONGO 1918"
Certain clasps were also issued retroactively for campaigns that took place prior to 1916. These include:
- "MOCAMBIQUE 1897-1898"
- "ALEM CUENE- 1904"
- "OCUPACAO DO DISTRITO DE MOCAMBIQUE 1906-1913"
- "ALEM CUNENE 1908-1910"
- "HUILA 1908-1910"
- "BAIXO CUBANGO 1909"
- "LUNDA 1911"
- "SATARY 1912"
- "TIMOR 1912-1913"
- "CONGO 1914-1915"
- "CUANHAMA 1915"
- "BISSAU 1915"
There may be additional versions of the Medal that differ in composition, design, or size due to a variety of different manufacturers. It should be noted that the clasps may also differ in inscription, composition and design due to a variety of manufacturers. Other unofficial clasps may be encountered.
In MedalBook, the Campaign Service Medal is classified into types. Type I includes the medals before 1949, while in Type II are encountered the Medals after 1949.
Obv: REPUBLICA PORTUGUESA 1916 Rev: CAMPANHAS DO EXCERCITO PORTUGUES
Obv: REPVBLICA PORTVGVESA Rev: 1916 CAMPANHAS DO EXERCITO PORTVGVESAS
Obv: REPUBLICA PORTUGUESA Rev: CAMPANHAS DO EXCERCITO PORTUGUES 1916
Frederico Da Costa, Lisbon
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