Medal for Peninsular War, Medal for 12 Actions
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Created by D. João VI of Portugal after the end of the Peninsular War, the Medal for Peninsular War (Medalha de Comando da Guerra Peninsular) was founded in Rio de Janeiro to distinguish all the Officers who commanded the Portuguese troops against Napoleonic forces during the Peninsular War.
The arms of the Medal were added based on the number of campaigns recognized to the recipient. The battles included:
5. Fuentes de Honor
7. Cerco de Ciudad Rodrigo
8. Cerco de Badajoz
12. Cerco de S. Sebastião
The distinction was mainly granted to British and Portuguese Officers.
The Medals for 1 and 2 Actions are rounded, while the rest have a star shape.
The Medals for 13, 12, 11, 10, and 9 Actions are highly rare, due to they were awarded in a few occasions. The unique Medal for 13 Actions was awarded to British General Wellington (main figure at the Peninsular War) for his participation at Vimeiro, Talavera, Bussaco, Fuentes de Oñoro, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vitoria, Pirenéus, Nivelle, Nive, Orthez, and Toulouse. As well, the only Medal for 12 Actions was awarded to General Beresford for the battles of Corunha, Bussaco, Albuera, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vitoria, Pirenéus, Nivelle, Nive, Orthez, and Toulouse. The Medal for 11 Actions was granted to Marshal Denis Pack. The 10 action Medals were granted to Manuel de Brito Mousinho, Benjamin D´Urban, Robert Harvey; and the 9 Actions Medal to Alexander Dickson, and Hardinge.
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