Order of Military Virtue (with monogram FL)
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The Order of Military Virtue was established as the Order pour la vertu militaire by Landgrave Friedrich II of Hesse-Kassel on February 25, 1769, and was modelled on the Prussian Pour le Mérite.
The order was instituted in a single grade and was conferred upon officers of the Hessian army or officers of allied armies. It was conferred for military merit in both times of peace and war. When it was awarded in times of peace, it could only be awarded to individuals with the rank of Major Officer or higher.
The badges awarded under Landgrave Friedrich II bear the monogram "FL" on the upper arm of the cross. With the accession of Landgrave Wilhelm IX, this was replaced by his cypher, "WL". After Wilhelm's elevation to Elector (Wilhelm I) in 1803, the order bore the cypher "WK". In 1815, 41 crosses with the monogram "FL" and 11 with the monogram "WL" were in the treasure of the order. It is highly probable that all badges were awarded with the electoral hat until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
In 1820, the name of the award was changed to Militär-Verdienstorden or Order of Military Merit.
The order became obsolete following the annexation of Hesse-Kassel by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866.
It was awarded 242 times.
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