Albert Order, Type II, Civil Division, Grand Cross (in gold)

CATEGORY: Version

SKU: 01.SXK.0108.101.01.000

Estimated market value:

$3,000 USD

  •  Grand Cross (in gold)

Estimated market value:

$3,000 USD

Attributes

  • Country
    Germany
  • Composition
    Gold/Enamelled
  • Inscription
    Obv: ALBERTUS ANIMOSUS Rev: 1850
  • Size
    88x52mm
  • Version Remarks
    The Type II awards feature the “Hinged Cap” or “Young Portrait” medallion. The award weighs 34 grams.

History


The Royal Saxon Order of Albrecht was created on December 31, 1850 by King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, in commemoration of the 350th anniversary of the death of his predecessor Duke Albert III, also known as Albert the Bold. It was awarded to those who remained loyal to the revolution of 1848 and at the Dresden May Uprising of 1849, and served the state well for civil virtue, science and art.

The Order was designed with Christian iconography in mind. The center medallion was believed to be the bust of the founder of the Albertinien family line, Albert the stout-hearted. However, it was, by mistake, Albert the Perennial, which resulted in the modelling to be changed in 1876.

At its conception, the Order comprised five classes: Grand Cross, I Class Commander, II Class Commander, Knight and Small Cross.

On March 18, 1858, the Small Cross was renamed the “Honour Cross” to improve the reputation of the class. In 1861, a gold and silver merit medal were added to the Order.

In conjunction with the Austro-Prussian war, a merit cross with swords was added in 1866, and this was extended in December 1870 to have swords on the ring. According to the statutes, for those in the field earned merit and as a military award to people who already are in possession of the same order and the same class are found without war decorations, the swords will be added to the ring under the crown.When a higher order in the civil division was presented to a recipient who holds a lower class with swords, the swords will be added to the ring of the higher civil division decoration.

Profound restructuring to the order occurred in 1876. The Medals were abolished and the Knight was split into a I Class and II Class. In 1884, a gold Great Cross” was added and in June 1890, the Officer’s Cross was inserted into the Order between the II Class Commander and the I Class knight. Saxony was a pioneer in the German states for the integration of this class. More importantly, the bust was changed to feature a young portrait with a hinged cap.

In 1893, it was decided that the Grand Cross could be awarded with a golden star. In July 1901, the Knight I Class with Crown was added as its own class between the Officer’s Cross and the Knight I Class.

In 1906, all Saxon orders began allowing swords on the ring. Swords on the ring were a sign for an award of bravery in a lower grade of the same order, however they often came at a cost paid by the recipient.

Until 1916, the orders were awarded as follows (with exceptions):
Grand Cross: Generals of the Inf.pp and lieutenant generals
Commander I Class: major general
Commander II Class: colonel
Officer’s Cross: Lieutenant colonels
Knight I Class: majors and captains
Knight II Class: first lieutenants, lieutenants
Medal: NCO and enlisted men

After 1916, the orders were awarded as follows (with exceptions):
Grand Cross with Gold Star: generals of the Inf.pp in command
Grand Cross: Generals of the Inf.pp who do not command, and older lieutenant generals
Commander I Class: young Lieutenants, and senior major generals
Commander II Class: younger major generals, elderly colonels
Officer’s Cross: younger colonels, senior lieutenant colonels
Knight I Class with Crown: senior lieutenant colonels
Knight I Class: majors, captains
Knight II Class: first lieutenants, lieutenants

“Older” officers were understood to be those who were at least two years in the relevant rank.

This Order was the most commonly awarded order of Saxony. The Civil Division and Military Division should be equal in rank. Recipients of both a civil and military division decoration could wear both side by side.

The Order became obsolete in 1918.

Manufacturers of the Type I decorations include Mortiz Elimeyer, Gustav Adolph Scharffenberg and Christian Friedrich Rothe. Manufacturers of the Type II decorations include Scharffenberg, Alfred Roesner, Glaser & Sohne, and Rothe. Godet was not an official supplier of the Order, but was used as often as Rothe for Specially made decorations.

The Type I awards are known as the "Baker Cap" Type and the Type II awards are known as the "Hinged Cap" or "Young Portrait" Type.

The Grand Cross could be awarded with a gold star on the ribbon of the Order of Albert; with a gold star on the ribbon of the House order of the Rue Crown with a white hard shoulder; or with a gold star and a silver crown on the ribbon of the house order of the Rue Crown with white side stripes.

The Grand Cross is rather indistinguishable from the Commander Cross. In the majority of cases, the Grand Cross has a stirrup eyelet, while the Commander has the ring eyelet, however different manufacturers had different protocols.

The Grand Cross was awarded 784 times, 53 of which went to residents of Saxony. There were 456 in gold, and 346 in silver. From 1903 onwards, the Grand Crosses were gold-plated in silver. There are examples with rigid crowns and movable crowns.

G.A Scharffenberg was the official manufacturer between 1903-1911. Rigid crowns were not common during this time.

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