Air Crew Europe Star (with "FRANCE AND GERMANY" clasp)
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The Air Crew Europe Star was instituted by King George VI in May, 1945 to reward British and Commonwealth members of the Royal Air Force and Army for airborne service in operational flights over Europe between September 3, 1939, and June 5, 1944 (the outbreak of war until the start of the D-Day Normandy invasion). The Bronze Star was awarded to Royal Airforce personnel in recognition of 2 months of service as well as to Army personnel in recognition of 4 months of aircrew duties, with at least 2 months of operational flights service and 1 operational sortie. To be eligible for the award of the Air Crew Europe Star, the recipient must have already received the 1939-1945 Star. Service curtailed by death or disability, along with other services which were recognized by an award or mention in despatches qualified towards the award of the Star.
The clasps “ATLANTIC” and “FRANCE AND GERMANY” were authorized for wear with the Star. However, only the first clasp earned could be worn on the ribbon. A silver rosette designating the award of a clasp was worn on the ribbon when the ribbon was worn alone.
A variety of different naming styles were used, and unnamed versions are known. Officially named stars of South African recipients are extremely rare.
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