Military Cross (with 2 clasps, 1914-1937)
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The Military Cross was established by Royal Warrant on December 28, 1914. It was created to fill the need for a gallantry decoration that could be awarded to Junior Officers of the Army, much like the Distinguished Service Cross had been created for Junior Officers of the Royal Navy in 1901. It was originally awarded to soldiers of the Commonwealth, although many of these nations have since established their own awards for gallantry.
It was first awarded to Warrant Officers and Commissioned Officers equivalent to or below the rank of Captain in the British Army in recognition of acts of gallantry. It was amended for the first time in 1915 when it was fully extended to Commissioned Officers of foreign armies for acts of gallantry performed alongside British forces. In 1917, it was affirmed that the recognized action must occur in combat. In 1931, the award was extended to Officers equivalent to the rank of Major, and to Officers of the Royal Air Force for acts of gallantry performed on land. Since 1993, it has been open to all ranks of the British Armed Forces in recognition of acts of gallantry performed on land.
The Cross may be awarded multiple times to the same recipient, in which case a silver bar clasp is worn on the ribbon to denote each additional award.
There are multiple versions of the Cross that differ according to the royal cypher of the Sovereign on the obverse.
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