Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in today's Thuringia, Germany. It existed from 1599 to 1918. First it was founded as county Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, by the House of Schwarzburg.

In 1599, the brothers Albert VII and John Günther I established the two counties of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, after their brother Count William of Schwarzburg-Frankenhausen had died in 1597. From 1710 to 1918 it was a principality. The principality entered the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807 and the German Confederation in 1815. Moreover in the 19th century, the state state declared themselves for Prussia in the Seven Weeks’ War and entered the North German Federation and the German Empire.

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt had an area of 941 km² and a population of 100.702 in 1910. In 1919, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt became a "Free State" and was merged into the new state of Thuringia in the next year.

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