Maximilian Order for Art and Science, Decoration for Art
Image courtesy of Andreas Thies
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A cross trefle constructed of gold and enamels. In the quadrants between the arms lay a single ray with a ball finial and a wreath of oak and laurel. The arms of the cross are in blue enamel with intricate gold detail and white enamel borders. The obverse center medallion bears the bust of Maximilian II von Bayern on a white enamel background, encompassed by a red enamel border with the inscription “GESTIFTET V. MAX II KOENIG V. BAYERN”. The center medallion is topped with a Bavarian crown. The reverse center medallion bears a pegasus on a white enamel background, encompassed by a red enamel border with the inscription “FUR WISSENSCHAFT UND KUNST” (For Science and Art). The top of the cross bears a red enamel ribbon. With a crown and oak leaf elongated suspension.
The Maximilian Order for Art and Science was established by King Maximilian II von Bayern on November 28, 1853. It was awarded to scholars and artists for excellence and outstanding achievement in science and art. The order was presented as a single class in two departments - one for science and one for art. The number of members was limited to 100. It was not possible to apply for the order, as the king appointed a chapter of the order to appoint new members. The order was primarily given to German citizens, however, it was possible for the order to be awarded to foreigners. After a member died, the order had to be returned. Initially, Eduard Quellhorst, Adam Hausinger and Julius Elchinger produced and repaired the order. After 1905, Gebr. Hemmerle and Weiss & Cie produced the order. With the beginning of the Nazi regime n 1933, the Maximilian Order for Art and Science became obsolete, but was reinstated in 1980 by Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauß.
The Maximilian Order for Art and Science Decorations for Science and for Art only differ slightly in design. The back medallion of the Decoration for Science bears the image of an owl, whereas the back medallion of the Decoration for Art bears the image of a pegasus.
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