Oldenburg is a city in Lower Saxony. The city is the place of origin of the House of Oldenburg. They family is one of Europe's most influential royal houses, with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg.

The city has a population of 165,711.

In 1667, Oldenburg passed to the Danish crown, because Gerhard’s line from Oldenburg died out . In 1773 Christian VII of Denmark ceded Oldenburg to his distant cousin Paul. The principality of Birkenfeld was ceded to Oldenburg in 1817. Oldenburg became a grand duchy in the 19th century. In 1871 Oldenburg joined to the German Reich. During the Nazi period, the city was the centre of a large administrative district. After the World War II, the State of Oldenburg was part of the British zone of occupation and later, Oldenburg was merged with Lower Saxony Land.

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