Vatican City State is an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. Established with the Lateran Treaty (1929), it is distinct from yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See. With an area of 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of about 1,000, it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population. The official languages are Italian and Latin.
The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state (a type of theocracy) ruled by the pope who is, religiously speaking, the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. The independent Vatican city-state came into existence in February 11, 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy.
The Supreme Order of Christ is today the highest decoration conferred by the Pope. The Award is very rare. It is awarded to a head of state and prominent statesmen of Catholic faith who have received special services to the Catholic Church or to society. Since the death of the medal commander King Baudouin in 1993, there is no longer a living medal holder.
Antique Photos: http://antique-photos.com/en/
The Christian Knighthood Information Centre: http://www.papalknights.org/
"Rare Original Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem Knights grand Cross Star" Worthington Galleries. Accessed February 21 2019. https://worthingtongalleries.com/shop/antique/rare-original-order-of-our-lady-of-bethlehem-knights-grand-cross-star/