Nassau was a Duchy and was located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The independent state existed between 1806 and 1866. The Duchy of Nassau had 465,636 inhabitants and the capital was first Weilburg and then Nassau.
The ruling dynasty, now extinct, was the House of Nassau. As the result after the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Nassau was incorporated into the Province of Hesse-Nassau. From 1868 to 1918 was it a province of the Kingdom of Prussia. Until 1944 province of the Free State of Prussia.
1944 Hesse-Nassau was split into the provinces of Kurhessen and Nassau. After the WWII, the two sperate provinces became to the newly founded state of Hesse. But parts of Nassau were also moved into the Rhineland-Palatinate.

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