Soviet Union/USSR (1917-1991)
After the centuries-old Romanov monarchy, Russia emerged from a civil war in 1921 as the newly formed Soviet Union. Russia become one of the biggest and most powerful communist state in the world, before its fall and ultimate dissolution in 1991.
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and and Transcaucasia (now Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The control of this new government took revolutionary Vladimir Lenin. At its peak, the USSR would grow to contain 15 Soviet Socialist Republics.
After Lenin ruled Joseph Stalin Russia. During his reign, which lasted until his death in 1953, Stalin transformed the Soviet Union from an agrarian society to an industrial and military superpower.
In 22 June 1941 started in the USSR as the "Great Patriotic War" against Germany, because the Germans invaded the Soviet Union. At the beginning from the WW II the German Army seemed invincible in Russia, but the Red Army stopped it at the Battle of Moscow. After the famous Battle of Stalingrad, the red army drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945. The German Army suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front
Following the surrender of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II, began the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United States and Great Britain. The cold war was until in 1991.