The Republic of Turkey is a transcontinental country in Eurasia and Middle East, located mainly in Western Asia. Turkey is bordered by Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. It has a total area of 302,455 square miles and a population of nearly 81 million. The country is encircled by seas on three sides. Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the country's largest city. The official language is Turkish.
In the 11th century was the start of the foundation of Turkey. It disintegrated into small Turkish principalities in 1243. In the late 13th-century these Turkish principalities started to uniting. In 1913, a coup effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against certain residents. In 1922, after the Turkish War of Independence, the monarchy was abolished and the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923.
The current president is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. He has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, reversed and undermined Kemalist policies, and has reversed it.
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