Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe with an area of 998 square miles, and a population of 576,249. It is bordered by Belgium, Germany, and France. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. French, German, and Luxembourgish are the three official languages. Luxembourg, as a democracy with a constitutional monarchy, is the world's only remaining grand duchy.

In 963 is the beginning of the history of Luxembourg, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory, including a fortifications and the surrounding area. His descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The country belonged to France and Austria, and was part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon. After the Belgian Revolution the purely Oil-speaking part of Luxembourg became part of Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part is now known as the present state of Luxembourg. In the 20th century, Luxembourg’s industrialisation grows, caused by its richness in iron-ore grounds. The country is still the world's largest steel producer but is now focused on global financial centre.

The Order of the Golden Lion of the House of Nassau was established in March 31, 1858. In the context of the elder Walramian line, this decoration is the highest Luxembourgian national order. It was created to commemorate the 600th anniversary of both branches of the House of Nassau and the 50th anniversary of the Duchy of Nassau, as well as to provide the Duke with an award to bestow upon fellow royals.


Ruokonen, Antti. Lion at the Crossroads: Orders of Luxembourg. Vaasa: Antti Ruokonen, 2013.

“Croix de Service pour Militaires 1850.” Gentleman’s Military Interest Club. Published on January 29, 2011.
“Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg.” Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Minister of State of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Distinctions honorifiques du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg.
“Luxembourg Orders, Decorations, and Medals.” Gentleman’s Military Interest Club. Published on January 23, 2006.

All relevant government regulations can be accessed online from Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg.

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