Officially, the Republic of Chile is a country in South America which occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the Pacific Ocean. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Spanish is the official language and Santiago is its capital and larger city.
Chile proclaimed its definitive independence from Spain on February 18, 1818, one year after José de San Martín and Bernardo O’Higgins overpowered the royalist army at the Battles of Chacabuco and Maipú. Chile authorized its first medals for these battles.
Chile was military involved in several engagements with Spain and other South American countries throughout the 19th century. In addition, it fought against the Mapuche resistance in the south of the country in the 1880s. The country instituted a large array of medals for all these engagements.
During the 20th century, the country experienced a severe left-right political polarization. In 1973, the Chilean coup d'état overthrew Salvador Allende's government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship headed by Augusto Pinochet. The dictatorship ended in 1990 after the referendum of 1988.
In Medal Book, as an effort to scheme an accurate historical sequence of Chile, the country is organized by Orders, Medals & Decorations, and Badges & Insignia.
Chilean Government. Catálogo Naval de Uniformes. Dirección de Abastecimiento de la Armada de Chile, 2005.
Chilean Government. Vol 1 of Reglamento para el otorgamiento y uso de condecoraciones, medallas sus distintivos en las Fuerzas Armadas. Ejército de Chile, 2005.